Alfonso Miguel García Hernández, Martín Rodríguez Álvaro, Pedro Ruymán Brito Brito, Domingo Ángel Fernández Gutiérrez, Carlos Enrique Martínez Alberto, Cristo Manuel Marrero González


El duelo es un proceso de adaptación natural y autolimitado a una nueva realidad que surge tras una pérdida significativa, real o percibida, con un amplio abanico de manifestaciones que producen un impacto en la salud del doliente. Las investigaciones en torno al duelo, han modificado el modo de entender sus procesos, con lo que su clasificación ha variado drásticamente. Los diferentes tipos de duelo pueden agruparse en dos grandes categorías: duelo adaptativo y duelo no adaptativo, incluyendo en este último conjunto un conglomerado de procesos que incluyen el duelo traumático, el duelo complicado y el duelo espiritual. La literatura especializada, recoge diferentes escalas e instrumentos de medida que ayudan a evaluar el curso y el riesgo de complicaciones en el transcurso del duelo. Cada vez son más numerosas las investigaciones asociadas a la continuidad de vínculos, siendo necesaria una evaluación de la efectividad de esta conexión y de su capacidad de adaptación.


Adaptative grieving is a natural and self-limiting adjustment to a new reality that arises after a significant loss, real or perceived, with a wide range of manifestations that impact the health of the bereaved. Research on grief has modified the way we understand its processes so that its classification has drastically changed. The different types of grief can be grouped into two categories: adaptive grieving and maladaptive grieving. The latter group includes a pool of processes, including traumatic grievieng, complicated grieving and spiritual grieving. The specialized literature gathers different scales and measuring instruments that help toassess the course and risk of complications throughout grief. There is an increasing number of research associated with the continuity of bonds. And there is also a need to evaluate the effectiveness of this connection and its adaptive capacity.

Palabras clave

Duelo adaptativo; duelo no adaptativo; continuidad de vínculos;


Albuquerque, S.; Pereira, M.; Narciso, I. (2019). Portuguese Version of the Continuing Bonds Scale-16 in a Sample of Bereaved Parents. Journal os Loss and Trauma, 1-19.

Aoun, S. M.; Breen, L. J.; Howting, D. A.; Rumbold, B.; McNamara, B.; Hegney, D. (2015). Who needs bereavement support? A population-based survey of bereavement risk and support need. PLoS ONE, 10, 1–14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121101

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5ª ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-5. Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (5ª Edición). Editorial Médica Panamericana.

Attig, T. (1996). How we grieve. Relearning the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barreto, P.; Yi, P.; Soler C. (2008). Predictores de duelo complicado. Psico-Oncología, 5(2-3), 383-400.

Barreto, P.; de la Torre, O.; Pérez-Marín, M. (2012). Detección del duelo complicado. Psicooncología, 9, 2-3, 355-368. DOI: 10.5209/rev_PSIC.2013.v9.n2-3.40902

Bennett, G., Bennett, K.M. (2000). The presence of the dead: an empirical study. Mortality, 5 (2) 139-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/713686002

Black, C. G. (2014). Continuing bonds, meaning making and collectivism: predictors of complicated grief. (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Kansas City, Missouri, Estados Unidos.

Black, J.; Belicki, K.; Emberly-Ralph, J.; McCann, A. (2020). Internalized versus externalized continuing bonds: Relations to grief, trauma, attachment, openness to experience, and posttraumatic growth. Death Studies, 44. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1737274

Boelen, P. A. (2013). Symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, and adult separation anxiety: Distinctiveness and correlates. Psychiatry Research, 207(1-2), 68-72. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.021

Boelen, P. A.; van den Schoot, R.; van den Hout, M. A.; de Keijser, J.; van den Bout, J. (2010). Prolonged grief disorder, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are distinguishable syndromes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125(1-3), 374-378. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.01.076

Boelen, P. A.; Reijntjes, A.; Djelantik, A.; Smid, G. E. (2016). Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss: Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates. Psychiatry Research, 240, 358–363. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.012

Boelen, P. A.; Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. A. W.; Zijerveld, A. M. (2006). Continuing bonds and grief: A prospective analysis. Death Studies, 30, 767–776. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600852936

Boelen, P. A.; van Denderen, M.; de Keijser, J. (2016). Prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, anger, and revenge phenomena following homicidal loss: The role of negative cognitions and avoidance behaviors. Homicide Studies: An Interdisciplinary & International Journal, 20(2), 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767915580674

Bonanno, G. A., Wortman, C. B., Nesse, R. M. (2004). Prospective Patterns of Resilience and Maladjustment During Widowhood. Psychology and Aging, 19(2), 260–271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.260

Brandstätter, M., Kögler, M., Baumann, U., Fensterer, V., Küchenhoff, H., Borasio, G. D., & Fegg, M. J. (2014). Experience of meaning in life in bereaved informal caregivers of palliative care patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 22, 1391–1399. Doi:10.1007/s00520-013-2099-6

Breen, L.; O’Connor, M. (2007). The fundamental paradox in the grief literature: A critical reflection. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 55, 199–218. doi:10.2190/OM.55.3.c

Breen, L. J.; Karangoda, M. D.; Kane, R. T.; Howting, D. A.; Aoun, S. M. (2018). Differences in meanings made according to prolonged grief syntomatology. Death Studies, 42 (2), 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2017.1328467

Burke, L. A., Clark, K. A., Ali, K. S., Gibson, B. W., Smigelsky, M. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2015). Risk factors for anticipatory grief in faily members of terminally ill veterans receiving palliative care services. Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, 11, 244–266. doi:10.1080/15524256.2015.1110071

Burnett, Paul C. (1997) Core bereavement items. Consulta [6 de febrero de 2021] en https://eprints.qut.edu.au/26824/

Burnett, PC; Middleton, W.; Raphael, B.; Martinek, N. (1997). Measuring core bereavement phenomena. Psychological Medicine, 27, 49–57.

Carmassi, C.; Shear, M. K.; Massimetti, G.; Wall, M.; Mauro, C.; Gemignani, S.; Conversano, C.; Dell'Osso, L. (2014). Validation of the italian version Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG): A study comparing cg patients versus bipolar disorder, PTSD and healthy controls. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(5), 1322-1329. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.03.001

Coleman, R. A.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2010). Measuring meaning: Searching for and making sense of spousal loss in late life. Death Studies, 34, 804-834. Doi:10.1080/07481181003761625

Currier, J. M.; Holland, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2012). Prolonged grief symptoms and growth in the first 2 years of bereavement: Evidence for a nonlinear association. Traumatology,18(4), 65-71. doi:10.1177/1534765612438948

Currier, J.; Irish, J.; Neimeyer, R. A.; Foster, J. (2015). Attachment, Continuing Bonds and Complicated Grief Following Violent Loss: Testing a Moderated Model. Death Studies 39: 201-210. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2014.975869

Chapple, A.; Chris, Swift, C; Ziebland, S. (2011). The role of spirituality and religion for those bereaved due to a traumatic death. Mortality 16: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576275.2011.535998

Davis, C. G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, S.; Larson, S. (1998). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561–574. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561

De Luca, M.L.; Grossi, G.; Zacarello, G.; Greco, R.; Tineri, M.; Slavic, E.; Altomonte, A.; Palummieri, A. (2016). Adaptation and validation of the “Continuing Bond Scale” in an Italian context. An instrument for studying the persistence of the bond with the deceased in normal and abnormal grief. International Journal of Psychoanalysis and Education 8, 2, 37-52.

Dillen, L.; Fontaine, J. R.; Verhofstadt-Denève, L. (2009). Confirming the distinctiveness of complicated grief from depression and anxiety among adolescents. Death Studies, 33(5), 437-461. Doi: 10.1080/07481180902805673

Eisma, M. C.; Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, M. S.; Boelen, P. A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, W. (2015). Adaptive and maladaptive rumination after loss: A three‐wave longitudinal study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(2), 163–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12067

Eisma, M. C.; Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, W.; Boelen, P. A.; van den Bout, J. (2013). Avoidance processes mediate the relationship between rumination and symptoms of complicated grief and depression following loss. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(4), 961–970. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034051

Estevan-Burdeus P,; et al. (2016). Duelo prolongado y factores asociados. Psicooncología 13(2-3), 2016, pp. 399-415. https://doi.org/10.5209/PSIC.54444

Faschingbauer, T. R. (1981). Texas Revised Inventory of Grief manual. Houston: Honeycomb Publishing.

Faschingbauer, T. R.; Zisook, S.; De Vaul, R. (1987). The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. En S. Zisook (Ed.), Biopsychosocial aspects of bereavement (pp. 109-124). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. DOI: 10.1080/07481180590923706

Field, N.P. (2006). Unresolved grief and continuing bonds: an attachment perspective. Death Studies. 30, 739-756. DOI: 10.1080/07481180600850518

Field, N. P.; Filanosky, C. (2010). Continuing Bonds, Risk Factors for Complicated Grief, and Ad-justment to Bereavement. Death Studies, 34, 1-29. DOI: 10.1080/07481180903372269

Field, N. P.; Gal-Oz, E.; Bonanno, G. A. (2003). Continuing Bonds and Adjustment at 5 Years After the Death of a Spouse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 110-117. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.110

Field, N.P.; Gao, B.; Paderna, L. (2005). Continuing bonds in bereavement: an attachment theory based perspective. Death Studies, 29 (4), 277-299. Doi: 10.1080/07481180590923689

Field, N. P.; Nichols, C.; Holen, A.; Horowitz, M. J. (1999). The relation of continuing attachment to adjustment in conjugal bereavement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.2.212

Field, N. P.; Packman, W.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2004). Continuing bonds interview. (Available from Field or Packman, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, 1791. Arastradero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304.)

Field, N.P.; Packman, W.; Ronen, R.; Pries, A.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2013). Type of continuing bonds expression and its comforting versus distressing nature: implications for adjustment among bereaved mothers. Death Studies. 37, 889-912. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2012.692458

Foster, T.; Gilmer, M.; Davies, B.; Dietrich, M.; Barrera, M.; Fairalough, D.; Vannatta, K.; Gerhardt, C. (2011). Comparison of continuing bonds reported by parents and siblings after a child's death from cancer. National Institutes of Health Public Access, 35 (5), 420-440. Doi: HYPERLINK "https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F07481187.2011.553308" t "pmc_ext" 10.1080 / 07481187.2011.553308

Freud, S. ([1917] 1973). Duelo y Melancolía. Obras Completas, Vol. XIV. Madrid. Biblioteca Nueva, pp. 235-255.

Fuchs, T. (2018). Presence in absence. The ambiguous phenomenology of grief. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17, 43–63 DOI 10.1007/s11097-017-9506-2

Gamba-Collazos, H. A.; Navia, C. E. (2017). Adaptación del Inventario de Duelo Complicado en población colombiana. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 26(1), 15-30. Doi: 10.15446/rcp.v26n1.51205

García-García, J. A.; Landa, V.; Trigueros, M. C.; Gaminde, I. (2001). Inventario de Experiencias de Duelo (IED): adaptación al castellano, fiabilidad y validez. Atención Primaria, 27(2), 86-93.

García-García, J. A.; Landa, V.; Trigueros, M. C.; Gaminde, I. (2005). Inventario Texas Revisado de Duelo (ITRD): adaptación al castellano, fiabilidad y validez. Atención Primaria, 35(7), 353-358.

García-Hernández, A.M. (2008). Continuidad de los lazos entre madres y padres y sus hijos fallecidos. Experiencia con padres participantes en un grupo de duelo. Ene, 2 (3), 34-44. Recuperado de: http://ene-enfermeria.org/ojs/index.php/ENE/article/view/177/160

García-Hernández, A.M. (2005). Sueños y muerte en los miembros de la comunidad bahá'í de las islas Canarias. AIBR. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana, 40: 1-21.

García-Hernández, A.M. (2008). Continuidad de lazos entre madres y padres y sus hijos fallecidos. Experiencia con padres participantes en un grupo de duelo. Ene, 3: 34-44.

García-Hernández, A. M. (2010). Vivir el duelo. La experiencia de perder un hijo. Tenerife: Ediciones Idea.

García-Hernández, A. M. (2012). La pérdida y el duelo. Una experiencia compartida. España: Editor Bubok Publishing S. L.

García-Hernández, A.M. (2016). El duelo. En Enfermería Comunitaria II (cap. 45). pp. 901-918. Ediciones DAE (Grupo Paradigma).

García-Hernández, A.M. (2017). Narrativas y continuidad de vínculos en padres que perdieron hijos. Majorensis, 13:118-125.

García-Hernández, A.M. (2017). Duelo y causalidad. Cultura de los Cuidados (Edición digital), 21(49). Recuperado de http://dx.doi.org/10.14198/cuid.2017.49.06

García-Hernández, A. M. (2019). Benito… a propósito de Josué. Un estudio fenomenológico del duelo por la muerte de un hijo. Ene, 11: 1-13.

García-Hernández, A M. (2020). Continuidad de vínculos. El caso de estudio de Candelaria versus Tamara de causalidades significativas. Majorensis, 16:74-78.

García-Hernández, A.M.; Rodríguez, M.; Brito, P.R. (2016). Object repertoires that evoke memories for mothers and fathers who have lost children. Tenerife. Spain. Majorensis, 12: 12-21.

García-Hernández, A. M.; et al. (2018). Continuidad de vínculos y duelo: nuevas perspectivas. Health, Aging & End of Life, 3, pp. 49-65

Gee, T. (2009). Honouring the Spiritual Dimension for Survivors: The Development of a Hocokah or Healing Circle. Paper presented at the International Association of Suicide Prevention’s World Congress, Montevideo, Uruguay, Octubre 27–31.

Haley, E. (22 de marzo de 2018). 5 things you should know about Continuing Bonds [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://thefuneralfriend.com/index.php/2018/03/22/five-things-you-should-know-about-continuing-bonds/

Hill, E. (2013). Continuing attachment bonds to the deceased: a study of bereavement youth and their caregivers. (Tesis de posgrado) University of South Florida, Estados Unidos.

Hogan, N.S.; Greenfield, D.B.; Schmidth, L. A. (2001). Development and validation of the Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist. Death Studies, 25(1):1-32. Doi: 10.1080/07481180125831.

Holland, J. M.; Currier, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2006). Meaning reconstruction in the first two years of bereavement: The role of sense-making and benefit-finding. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 53, 175–191. doi:10.2190/FKM2-YJTY-F9VV-9XWY

Irwin, M. (2015). Mourning 2.0 continuing bonds between the living and the dead on facebook. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying, 72 (2), 119-150. Doi: 10.1177/0030222815574830

Jahn, D.R.; Spencer –Thomas, S. (2018). A Qualitative Examination of Continuing Bonds through Spiritual Experiences in Individuals Bereaved by Suicide. Religions 9, 248; doi:10.3390/rel9080248

Jordan, J.R.; Baker, J.; Matteis, M.; Rosenthal, S.; Ware, E.S. (2005). The grief evaluation measure (GEM): an initial validation study. Death Studies, 29: 301-332, Doi: 10.1080/07481180590923706

Keesee, N. J.; Currier, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2008). Predictors of grief following the death of one’s child: The contribution of finding meaning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 1145–1163. Doi:10.1002/jclp.20502

Kersting, A.; Brahler, E.; Glaesmer, H.; Wagner, B. (2011).Prevalence of complicated grief in a representative population-based sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 13,339–343. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.032

Klass, D. (2006). Continuing conversation about continuing bonds. Death Studies, 30, 843-858. doi: 10.1080/07481180600886959

Klass, D.; Silverman, P.R.; Nickman, S.L. (1996). Continuing Bonds. London und Philadelphia.

Klass, D.; Walter, T. (2001). Processes of Grieving: How Bonds are Continued. En Margaret S. Stroebe, Robert O. Hansson, Wolfgang Stroebe, and Henk Schut eds., Handbook of Bereavement Research: Consequence, Coping, and Care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kokou, Kpolou, K.; Megalakaki, O.; Nieuviarts, N. (2018). Persistent depressive and grief symptoms for up to 10 years following perinatal loss: Involvement of negative cognitions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 241, 360–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.063

Kristjanson, L.J.; Cousins, K.; Smith, J.; Lewin, G., (2005). Evaluation of the Bereavement Risk Index (BRI): a community hospice care control. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 11 (12), 610-618.

Kwilecki, S. (2009). Twenty-First Century American Ghosts: The After-Death Communication-Therapy and Revelation from Beyond the Grave. Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation 19: 101–33. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/rac.2009.19.1.101

Latham, A. E.; Prigerson, H. G. (2004). Suicidality and bereavement: Complicated grief as psychiatric disorder presenting greatest risk for suicidality. Suicide & Life Threatening Behavior, 34(4), 350–362. https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.34.4.350.53737

Lenferink, L. I. M.; Eisma, M. C. (2018). 37,650 ways to have “persistent complex bereavement disorder” yet only 48 ways to have “prolonged grief disorder”. Psychiatry Research 261, 88-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.050

Lichtenthal, W. G., Neimeyer, R. A., Currier, J. M., Roberts, K., & Jordan, N. (2013). Cause of death and the quest for meaning after the loss of a child. Death Studies, 37, 311–342. doi:10.1080/07481187.2012.673533

Lichtenthal, W. G., Currier, J. M., Neimeyer, R., & Keesee, N. (2010). Sense and significance: A mixed methods examination of meaning making after the loss of one’s child. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 791–812. doi:10.1002/jclp.20700

Limonero, J. T.; Lacasta, M.; García, J. A.; Maté, J.; Prigerson, H. G. (2009). Adaptación al castellano del inventario de duelo complicado. Medicina Paliativa, 16(5), 291-297.

Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 141-148.

Lundorff, M.; Holmgren, H.; Zachariae, R.; Farver‐Vestergaard, I.; O’Connor, M. (2017). Prevalence of prolonged grief disorder in adult bereavement: A systematic review and meta analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 212, 138–149.

Lyn, L. (24 de febrero de 2014). Continuing bonds theory of grief. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://www.aftertalk.com/blog/grieving-process-aftertalk-continuing-bonds-theory/

Machin, L. (2001). Exploring a framework for understanding the range of response to loss; a study of clients receiving bereavement counselling. (Tesis doctoral). Keele University, UK.

Machin, L.; Spall, R. (2004). Mapping Grief: a study in practice using a quantitative and qualitative approach to exploring and addressing the range of response to loss. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 4 (1), 9-17.

Machin, L. (2007). The Adult Attitude to Grief Scale as a Tool of Practice for Counsellors Working with Bereaved People. A study report sponsored by Age Concern, Tameside and Keele University.

Machin, L. (2009, 2014) Working with Loss and Grief. London: Sage.

Marris, P. (1974). Loss and change. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Mei, L.; Jie, L.I.; Kan, SHI. (2015). Chinese Version of Continuing Bonds Scale: Validation and Preliminary Application. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 23 (2). 251-255. Doi: 10.16128/j.cnki.1005-3611.2015.02.014

Melliar-Smith, C. (2002). The risk assessment of bereavement in a palliative care setting. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 8 (6), 281-287.

Miles, L. (2010). Continuing bonds: childhood sibling loss and its perceived long - them outcomes: a project based upon an independent investigation. (Tesis de maestría). Smith College, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos.

Morina, N. (2011). Rumination and avoidance as predictors of prolonged grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress in female widowed survivors of war. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(12), 921–927. Doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182392aae

Neimeyer, R. A. (Ed.). (2001). Meaning reconstruction and the experience of loss. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Neimeyer, R. A. (2004). Fostering posttraumatic growth: A narrative contribution. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 53–59.

Neimeyer, R. A. (2016). Meaning reconstruction in the wake of loss: Evolution of a research program. Behavior Change, 33, 65–79. Doi:10.1017/bec.2016.4

Neimeyer, R.A.; Hogan, N.S. (2001). Quantitative or qualitative? Measurement issues in the study of grief. In: Stroebe, M.S.; Hansson, R.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H., editors. Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care. American Psychological Association. Washington. p. 89-118.

Neimeyer, R.; Baldwin, S.; Gillies, J. (2006). Continuing bonds and reconstructing meaning: mitigating complications in bereavement. Death Studies, 30 (8), 715-738. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600848322

Neimeyer, R. A.; Burke, L. A.; Mackay, M.; Van Dyke Stringer, J. G. (2010). Grief therapy and the reconstruction of meaning: From principles to practice. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 40, 73–83. doi: 10.1007/s10879-009-9135-3

Newson, R. S.; Boelen, P. A.; Hek, K.; Hofman, A.; Tiemeier, H. (2011). The prevalence and characteristics of complicated grief in older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 231-238. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.02.021

O’Malley, P. (23 de enero de 2018). Continuing bonds [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://drpatrickomalley.com/continuing-bonds/

Ott, C. H. (2003). The impact of complicated grief on mental and physical health at various points in the bereavement process. Death Studies, 27(3), 249-272. Doi: 10.1080/07481180390137044

Packman, W.; Horsley, H.; Davies, B.; Kramer, R. (2006). Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds. Death Studies, 30 (9), 817-841. Doi: 10.1080/07481180600886603

Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 257–301. Doi: 10.1037/a0018301

Parkes, C.M.; Weiss, R.S. (1983). Recovery from bereavement. New York: Basic Books.

Patel, S. R.; Cole, A.; Little, V.; Skritskaya, N. A.; Lever, E.; Dixon, L. B.; Shear, M. K. (2018). Acceptability, feasibility and outcome of a screening programme for complicated grief in integrated primary and behavioural health care clinics. Family Practice, 36, 125–131. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmy050.

Piper, W. E.; Ogrodniczuk, J. S.; Azim, H. F.; Weideman, R. (2001). Prevalence of loss and complicated grief among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatric Services, 52(8), 1069–1074.

Pincus, L. (1976). Death and the Family, London: Faber.

Prigerson H. G. (2004). Complicated grief. Bereavement Care, 23(3), 38-40. Doi: 10.1080/02682620408657612

Prigerson, H.; Ahmed, I.; Silverman, G. K.; Saxena, A. K.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Jacobs, S. C.; Kasl, S. V.; Aqeel, N.; Hamirani, M. (2002). Rates and risks of complicated grief among psychiatric patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Death Studies, 26(10), 781–792. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180290106571

Prigerson, H. G.; Bierhals, A. J.; Kasl, S. V.; Reynols III, C. F.; Shear, M. K.; Newsom, J. T.; Jacobs, S. (1996). Complicated grief as a disorder distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety: A replication study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(11), 1484-1486.

Prigerson, H. G.; Horowitz, M. J.; Jacobs, S. C.;Parkes, C. M.; Aslan, M.; Goodkin, K.; Beverly, R.; Marwit, S.J.; Wortman, C.; Neimeyer, R. A.; Bonanno, G.; Block, S. D.; Kissane, D.; Boelen, P.; Maercker, A.; Litz, B. T.; Johnson J. G.; First, M. B; Maciejewski, P. K. (2009). Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Medicine, 6, 1000121. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000121

Prigerson, H. G; Jacobs, S. C. (2001). Traumatic grief as a distinct disorder: A rationale, consensus criteria, and a preliminary empirical test. En M. Stroebe, R. O. Hansson, W. Stroebe, y H. Schut (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, & care (pp. 613–635). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Prigerson, H. G.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Reynolds, C. F.; Bierhals, A. J.; Newsom, J. T.; Fasiczka, A.; Frank, E.; Doman, J.; Miller, M. (1995). Inventory of complicated grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry Research, 59(1–2), 65–79. Doi: 10.1016/0165-1781(95)02757-2

Rizzuto, A. M. (1979). The Birth of the Living God: A Psychoanalytic Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rodríguez-Álvaro, M. (2019). Impacto del duelo complicado. Una lectura a través del lenguaje del cuidado. Ene, 13(3). Consultado de http://ene-enfermeria.org/ojs/index.php/ENE/article/view/915

Root, B.L.; Exline, J.J. (2014). The Role of Continuing Bonds in Coping with Grief: Overview and Future Directions. Death Studies 38: 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2012.712608

Root, B.; Juola, J. (2014). The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions. Death Studies, 38 (1), 1-8. Doi: 10.1080/07481187.2012.71260

Rosner, R.; Pfoh, G.; Kotoučová, M. (2011). Treatment of complicated grief. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2. Doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.7995

Rozalski, V.; Holland, J. M.; Neimeyer, R. A. (2016). Circumstances of death and complicated grief. Indirect associations through meaning made of loss. Journal of Loss and Trauma. Doi: 10.1080/15325024.2016.1161426

Sanders, C. M.; Mauger, P. A.; Strong, P. N. (1985). A manual for the Grief Experience Inventory. The Center of the Study of Separation and Loss: Charlotte.

Simon, N. M.; Wall, M. M.; Keshaviah, A.; Dryman, M. T.; LeBlanc, N. J.; Shear, M. K. (2011). Informing the symptom profile of complicate grief. Depression and Anxiety, 28(2), 118-126. Doi: 10.1002/da.20775

Schut, H. A. W.; Stroebe, M. S.; Boelen, P. A.; Zijerveld, A. M. (2006). Continuing relationships with the deceased: Disentangling bonds and grief. Death Studies, 30, 757 – 766. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180600850666

Shear, M.K.; Simon, N.; Wall, M.; Zisook, S.; Neimeyer, R.A; Duan, N.; Reynolds C.; Lebowitz B.; Sung S.; Ghesquiere A.; Gorscak B.; Clayton P.; Ito M.; Nakajima S.; Konishi T.; Melhem N.; Meert K.; Schiff M.; O'Connor MF.; First M.; Sareen J.; Bolton J.; Skritskaya N.; Mancini AD.; Keshaviah A. (2011). Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 103–117. doi:10.1002/da.20780

Shuchter, S. R.; Zisook, S. (1986). Treatment of spousal bereavement: A multidimensional approach. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 295-305. https://doi.org/10.3928/0048-5713-19860501-09

Silverman, P. (5 de mayo de 2010). Thinking about continuing bonds. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/raising-grieving-children/201005/thinking-about-continuing-bonds

Silverman, P.R., Nickman, S.L. (1996). Children's Construction of Their Dead Parent. En Dennis Klass, Phyllis R. Silverman, and Steven L. Nickman eds., Continuing Bonds: A New Understanding of Grief. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Sim, J.; Machin, L.; Bartlam, B. (2014).Identifying vulnerability in grief: psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief Scale. Quality of Life Research 23:1211-1220. DOI 10.1007/s11136-013-0551-1

Steffen, E. M.; Coyle, A. (2010). Can “Sense of Presence” experiences in bereavement be conceptualized as spiritual phenomena? Mental Health, Religion and Culture 13: 273–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670903357844

Stroebe, M. (2018). The Poetry of Grief: Beyond Scientific Portrayal. OMEGA. Journal of Death and Dying, 78 (1) 67-96. DOI: 10.1177/0030222818792706

Stroebe, M. S.; Schut, H. (2005a). Complicated grief: A conceptual analysis of the field. Omega, 52, 53-70.

Stroebe, M.; Schut, H. (2005b). To continue or relinquish bonds: a review of consequences for the bereaved. Death Studies, 29, 47-494. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481180590962659

Szanto, K.; Shear, M. K.; Houck, P. R.; Reynolds, C. F., 3rd; Frank, E., Caroff, K.; Silowash, R. (2006). Indirect self destructive behavior and overt suicidality in patients with complicated grief. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(2), 233–239. DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v67n0209

Tal, I.; Mauro, C.; Reynolds, C. F.; Shear, M. K.; Simon, N.; Lebowitz, B.; Skitskaya, N.; Wang, Y.; Qiu, X.; Iglewicz, A.; Glorioso, D.; Avanzino, J.; Wertherell, J. L.; Karp, J. F.; Robinaugh, D.; Zisook, S. (2017). Complicated grief after suicide bereavement and other causes of death. Death Studies, 41(5), 267–275. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2016.1265028

Terranova, J. (22 de marzo de 2018). Grief theories series: continuing bonds theory. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: http://www.frazerconsultants.com/2018/03/grief-theories-series-continuing-bonds-theory/

Toedter, L.J.; Lasker, J.N.; Alhadeff, J. M. (1988). The perinatal grief: Development and initial validation. American Orthopsychiatric Association 58 (3) 435-449.

Unruh, D.R. (1983). Death and personal history: Strategies of identity preservation. Social Problems, 30(3) 240-251. https://doi.org/10.2307/800358

Wasielewski, M. (14 de septiembre de 2015). What is the continuing bonds theory? And is it recommended? [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-continuing-bonds-theory-recommended-mary-ellen-wasielewski

Williams, L. (17 de febrero de 2014). Continuing bonds: shifting the grief paradigm. [Mensaje en un blog]. Recuperado de: https://whatsyourgrief.com/continuing-bonds-shifting-the-grief-paradigm/

Wood, L.; Byram, A.; Gosling, S.; Stokes. J. (2012). Continuing Bonds after Suicide Bereavement in Childhood. Death Studies 36: 873–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2011.584025

World Health Organization. ICD-11. International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision. https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en

Wortmann, J. H.; Park, C. L. (2008). Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review. Death Studies 32: 703–36. DOI: 10.1080/07481180802289507

Yi, P. (2015). Factores de riesgo de duelo complicado en cuidados paliativos (Tesis Doctoral). Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia.

Yu, W.; He, L.; Xu, W.; Wang J.; Prigerson, H.G. (2016). How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds. Psychiatry Research 238, 93-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.030

Ziółkowska, J.; Galasiński, D.; Bajkowska, N. (2015). Continuing bonds from a discourse analytic perspective. Rev. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 46 (4), 587-593. Doi: 10.1515/ppb-2015-0065

Texto completo: ARTÍCULO


  • No hay Refbacks actualmente.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.





A MC Rosell. El que la conoció no pudo evitar enamorarse de ella.

A Lourdes Álvaro y a su maravillosa historia de amor y lucha. Cuánto espacio se puede ocupar con poco movimiento.



Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto donde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons